The report authored by Arizona State University researchers Audrey Amrein and David Berliner purported to examine student-performance trends on national exams in states where legislators have attached \"high stakes\" to test scores. The controversial nature of testing has led to the hurried release and dissemination of research that lacks scientific rigor, of which the Amrein and Berliner study is one of the more egregious examples.
This paper reviews the state of the art of research on individual decision-making in high-stakes, low-probability settings. A central theme is that resolving high-stakes decisions optimally poses a formidable challenge not only to naïve decision makers, but also to users of more sophisticated tools, such as decision analysis. Such decisions are difficult to make because precise information about probabilities is not available, and the dynamics of the decision are complex. When faced with such problems, naïve decision-makers fall prey to a wide range of potentially harmful biases, such as failing to recognize a high-stakes problem, ignoring the information about probabilities that does exist, and responding to complexity by accepting the status quo. A proposed agenda for future research focuses on how the process and outcomes of high-stakes decision making might be improved.
This is a study of the admissions process at a select group of New York City public high schools. It offers the first detailed look at the admissions practices of this highly regarded and competitive group of schools, and also provides a window into the broader national debate about the use of standardized tests in school admissions. According to New York State law, admission to these schools must be based solely on an exam. The exam used is called the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test (SHSAT). This study makes use of the individual test results from 2005 and 2006.
Flipping a card will raise the stakes. If you flip over all value cards or stab the Vampire the stakes will be added to your winnings. If you flip the Vampire the stakes will be substracted from your winnings.
Use the blood you win to unlock opponents with higher payouts. You win the game if your reach 5000ml. Your progress will be saved between matches. But if you lose all your blood your savegame will be wiped and you need to start over.
This game introduced me to Pico8 and I've been obsessed with these games ever since. The dark and eerie graphics and music tied with the tension of high stakes gambling is bone chilling fun. It took me sometime, but after a few late nights with some hot coffee i was able to beat them all and get my blood back. This game is awesome, I would love to see an upgraded version someday, maybe with some spooky 3D graphics.
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The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in seven children in the United States experienced abuse or neglect in the past year. Child protective services agencies around the nation receive a high number of reports each year (about 4.4 million in 2019) of alleged neglect or abuse. With so many cases, some agencies are implementing machine learning models to help child welfare specialists screen cases and determine which to recommend for further investigation.
These findings could be applied to other high-risk fields where humans use machine learning models to help them make decisions, but lack data science experience, says senior author Kalyan Veeramachaneni, principal research scientist in the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS) and senior author of the paper.
For instance, since explanations are based on averages in a database of child abuse and neglect cases, having three past abuse referrals may actually decrease the risk score of a child, since averages in this database may be far higher. A screener may see that explanation and decide not to trust the model, even though it is working correctly, Zytek explains. And because humans tend to put more emphasis on recent information, the order in which the factors are listed could also influence decisions.
The No Child Left Behind education act, signed by President Bush in 2002, imposed high-stakes testing standards on all schools in the nation. A decade later, amidst a cheating scandal and a budget crisis, the School District of Philadelphia experienced dramatic standardized test score declines after nine years of increases. This study aims to place these declines in the context of national, state, and local education policy and provide statistical evidence for the cause of the declines. School climate among schools flagged for cheating and budget decreases experienced by all Philadelphia schools significantly contributed to the declines. Nevertheless, the major finding faults the elimination of cheating, enforced by the use of increased testing security in 2012, for the lower test scores. The analysis supports existing theory that high stakes testing encourages administrative cheating and hinders the educational achievement of students.
More about this itemJEL classification: I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination Lists This item is featured on the following reading lists, Wikipedia, or ReplicationWiki pages: The Effects of High Stakes High School Achievement Awards: Evidence from a Randomized Trial (AER 2009) in ReplicationWiki Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:99:y:2009:i:4:p:1384-1414. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
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For many students around the world, the end of the school year is associated with high-stakes examinations. These are often used to select or certify students as they move from one level of the education system to the next (or into the workforce). Normally, examinations also play an important equity role in limiting the effects of patronage and opening up access to educational opportunities for students from relatively disadvantaged backgrounds. With the coronavirus forcing school closures and bans on group gatherings, many solutions and measures are being introduced for the exams that students have been preparing to take. There are three main alternative approaches.
For students planning to take the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in May and June 2020, the exam has been suspended in their countries and will be revisited once the health situation improves. The Caribbean Examination Council (CXC), which covers 16 countries and territories in the West Indies, has postponed its high school exams from May and June to July 2020. Although the Czech Republic has introduced preparation for school-leaving examinations on TV, there are now discussions to postpone the exams. Hong Kong has postponed its Diploma of Secondary Education (DSE) exam by a month (to April 24, 2020). In Ireland, discussions are underway to postpone for several months the Leaving Cert, the terminal exam for post-primary education that is used for selection to further education and employment), which was originally planned for June 2020, as well as to postpone the start of the next academic year at higher education institutions. Likewise in India, exams to enter higher education have been postponed, and the government is working to revise the exam schedule as well as adjust the academic calendar. In China, the GaoKao university entrance examinations, which nearly 10 million students take per year, are postponed by one month to July 7 and 8, 2020. In Colombia, state exams have been postponed as options for rescheduling are explored. 1e1e36bf2d